1) Short range forces- Nuclear force is attractive and is strong at distances in the order of the nuclear radius.
2)Strong repulsive forces keeps nucleons from overlapping each other.
3)The energy required to split a nucleus into it’s constituents is given by the binding energy. This gives information about the force between the nucleus, stability of the nucleus and energy released/ required in nuclear decays or reactions.
4) Nucleus has a well defined spin.
5) Properties like the electric quadrapole moment and the magnetic dipole moment give information about the distribution of magnetic moment and charge throughout the nucleus.