Orientation

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    ViktorOdB
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    J=2 corresponds to a parallel alignment, pointing in the same direction. J=2 is the sum of the sizes of L and S, they thus have to be in the same directions in order for the sum to be maximal.

    J=1 corresponds to a perpendicular alignment. L and S have to be perpendicular in order for the magnitude of J to be of the same size.

    J=0 corresponds to a parallel alignment, pointing in opposite direction.The only way to get a total angular momentum of 0 is by full cancellation of L and S against one another.

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