three J-values

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    Konstantin Stoychev

    I think about L,S and J as vectors with L=1 being a vector along the Z axis, L=-1 being a vector opposite to the Z axis and L=0 being a vector in the XY plane. The same is true for the S vector. Then the J values and the relative directions of L and S come naturally – highest J when L and S are parallel and in the same direction, lowest J when they are in the opposite direction and the middle option (J=1) when they are perpendicular to each other.

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